武術的歷史(History of Martial Arts)

  

A Brief History of Traditional Chinese Martial Arts

 

Martial Arts are as old as China itself. Not merely a means of waging war, it was closely tied with China's native religion of Daoism (sometimes spelled Taoism). It placed a heavy emphasis on virtue (see Wu-De), artistic technique, and nurturing the mind, body and spirit for health and longevity. Martial displays were performed at important celebrations and even used as a way to worship Heaven. It's no surprise then that classical Chinese dance evolved out martial arts. In Chinese, even the way you pronounce martial arts and dance is the same.

History

The difference between Internal and External Martial Arts can be
a subject of much scholarship. However, most simply put, the
Internal Martial Arts (Taichi, Bagua, Xingyin, etc) emphasize inner
development and cultivation, such as paying attention to body structure,
the flow of energy, or qi, through the body, etc. External Martial
Arts likes Cha Quan, Hua Quan, the Shaolin animal forms, etc, trains
the body from the outside in, strengthening muscles through
physical forms and stances.The first style to appear was called "Jiao-di"
a style of wrestling used in the legendary battle between the Yellow
Emperor and the rebellious Chi-you that established the Xia Dynasty
(2852-2205 BC) and began Chinese civilization. During the chaotic
period known as the Warring States Period (476-221 BC) saw
the rapid development of sword forms and techniques. Sword techniques reached their peak in China's golden age, the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD). The introduction of Buddhism brought with it the famous animalstyles of the Shaolin Temple. After the Song (960-1279) and Yuan (1271-1368) Dynasties, famed Daoist practitioner Zang Sanfeng created Taichi Quan, the pinnacle of the Daoist theories of Yin and Yang. Then in the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing Dynasties (1644-1911) Ba Gua and Xingyi Quan began to spread. These were the beginning of what became known as the Internal Martial Arts.

Over the years, a division between Northern and Southern styles also appeared. There also were Northern and Southern versions of well-known Shaolin styles. Since southern China was more crowded and the streets were usually narrower, Southern styles tend to have more compact movements compared to the fully extended movements of Northern styles.

Today there are more than 200 known styles, over 1000 different forms and more than 18 different weapons. And this is just Chinese martial arts!

History